Marcus Aurelius believed in an interconnected universe where everything is just and happens according to divine will – even if that means you’re oppressed.
Modern science has not vindicated the ancient Stoic view of nature. Their rivals – the Epicureans – believed that nature is atomistic, impersonal, and that divine providence doesn’t exist.
From Meditations by Marcus Aurelius
The world is a living being – one nature, one soul. Keep that in mind. How everything is absorbed into this one consciousness, how a single impulse governs all its actions, and how everything helps produce everything else – spun and woven together (4.40).
The natural can never be inferior to the artificial. Art imitates nature, not the reverse (11.10).
Keep reminding yourself how things are connected. All things are related one another and in sympathy with each other (6.38).
There is a single harmony. Just as the world forms a single body comprising all bodies, so fate forms a single purpose, comprising all purposes (5.8).
Everything is interwoven in a sacred bond. None of its parts are disconnected. They are arranged in their proper place. There is one orderly, graceful disposition of the whole. There is one God in the whole. There is one substance, one law, and one reason common to all intelligent beings. And one truth. There is a sort of perfection to all beings, who are of the same nature, who share the same logos (7.9).
Each of us needs what nature gives us, when nature gives it (10.20). Whatever happens to you is for the good of the world. That should be enough right there. But if you look closely you’ll generally notice something else as well: whatever happens to a single person is for the good of others (6.45).
To the world: Your harmony is mine. Whatever time you choose is the right time. Not late, not early (4.23).
To nature: What the turn of your seasons brings me falls like ripe fruit. All things are born from you, exist in you, return to you (4.23).
Nature is personal
The soul of the universe is kind and social. It has made the inferior orders for the sake of the superior; and has suited the superior beings for each other. You see how it has subordinated, coordinated, and distributed to each according to its merit, and brought nobler beings together into a mutual agreement and unanimity (5.30, see also 7.55).
For a rational being, to act in accordance with nature is to act in accordance with reason (7.11). All rational things are related, and to care for all human beings is part of being human (3.4).
To lie is to blaspheme against nature because nature is synonymous with truth (9.1). What injures the hive injures the bee (6.54).
Don’t pay attention to other people’s minds. Look straight ahead where nature is leading (7.55). Teach yourself to be at one with those things ordained for you. And treat the people who share them with you with love – with real love (6.39).
Everything happens by necessity
Nature is passive and malleable. And the logos that governs it has no reason to do evil. It knows no evil, does none, and causes harm to nothing. It dictates all beginnings and all endings (6.1).
Nature brings about everything (6.9). Nature willed the creation of the world. We must agree that everything – even the worst we see – happens as a necessary consequence or connection with those excellent things primarily intended (7.75). Either the world’s intelligence wills each thing (if so, accept its will), or it exercised that will once and for all — and all else follows as a consequence (and if so, why worry?) (9.28).
Through nature all things happen as they should. That things happen for the worst and always will, that the gods have no power to regulate them, and the world is condemned to never-ending evil—how can you say that? (9.35, see also 10.6)
No one can keep you from living as your nature requires. Nothing can happen to you that is not required by Nature (6.58). What humans experience is part of human experience. The experience of the ox is part of the experience of oxen, as the vine’s is of the vine, and the stone’s what is proper to stones. Nothing that can happen is unusual or unnatural, and there’s no sense in complaining. Nature does not make us endure the unendurable (8.46).
Fate? Providence? Or random and undirected? If it’s fate, why resist? If it’s providence then try to be worthy of God’s help. If it’s confusion and anarchy then be grateful that on this raging sea you have a mind to guide you (12.14).
Reason, when it obeys nature, reacts to events by accommodating itself to what it faces — to what is possible. It pursues its own aims as circumstances allow. It turns obstacles into fuel (4.1).
Nature is constant change
The whole is composed of individual parts whose destruction, or transformation, is inevitable. How can the whole run smoothly if this is harmful to the parts? Is nature oblivious? Neither seems very plausible (10.7).
All things are little, changeable, and presently to vanish. All things proceed from the universal governing mind, either by direct and primary intention, or by necessary consequence and connection with things primarily intended. Thus, the horrid jaws of the lion, poisons, and whatever is pernicious (as thorns or mire) are the consequences of those venerable and lovely things you admire. So don’t think they’re foreign to nature, which you revere, but rather the fountain of all things (6.36).
The universe is preserved by the changes of the elements, by the changes of the complex forms. Let these thoughts suffice; let them be your maxims, laying aside that thirst after multitudes of books; that you may die without repining, meek and well satisfied, and sincerely grateful to the gods (2.3b).
Even the incidental effects of the processes of nature have their own charm and attraction. For anyone who has a deep affection of soul, and insight into the workings of the whole, scarcely anything connected with nature will fail to recommend itself agreeably to him (3.2).
All that exists is the seed of what will emerge from it. Constantly observe everything that comes from change. The nature of the whole loves nothing so much as to change what exists and makes new things from it (4.36).
You have arisen as a part in the universe, you shall disappear again, returning to your source – or rather, by a change shall be resumed again, into that productive intelligence from you came from (4.14). Don’t look down on death, but welcome it. It too is one of the things required by nature (9.3).
Frightened of change? What can exist without it? What’s closer to nature’s heart? Can you eat food without transforming it? (7.18) Nature takes substance and makes a horse. Like a sculptor with wax. And then melts it down and uses the material for a tree. Then for a person. Then for something else. Each existing only briefly (7.23). The world is continually renewed (7.25). To decompose is to be recomposed. That’s what nature does (9.35).
Nature gives and nature takes away. Anyone with sense and humility will tell her, “Give and take as you please” – not out of defiance, but out of obedience and goodwill (10.14).
Nothing is so conducive to spiritual growth as the capacity for logical and accurate analysis of everything that happens to us. See things for what they really are: its substance stripped bare – as a whole, unmodified. Call it by its name — the thing itself and its components, to which it will eventually return (3.11).
The big picture
Think of the whole of existence, of which you’re the tiniest part; how brief and fleeting your appointed time is; and how small a role you play in universal fate (5.24). By contemplating this you can discard most of the junk that clutters your mind — things that exist only there — and clear out space for yourself (9.32, see also 12.32).
Remember these things always: what the nature of the universe is, what your nature is, and how this is related to the universe; what sort of part you are, what sort of whole (2.9), and the governor of the universe from whom you flowed as a small stream from a great fountain (2.4). And that no man can hinder you from acting and speaking in agreement with the whole, of which you are a part (2.9).
Reason & Virtue
I’ve shortened and arranged the quotations for readability. Quotations are from Gregory Hays translation published by Modern Library, a translation by Francis Hutcheson and James Moor and published by the Liberty Fund, Inc, and the Penguin Classics translated by Martin Hammond.